Equipment

Powder-characterization equipment

  • Preparation, sampling

    • Sieve, Riffles, Sample dividers,

    • Alpine 200 LS-N Sieve shaker,

  • Granulometry, Morphology

    • Malvern Mastersizer 2000,

    • Coulter counter,

    • Multi sizer II Sedigraph,

    • Horiba Capa 700 sedimentation centrifuge ,

    • Visilog image analysis, coupled to optical microscope,

    • SEM, Environmental SEM.

  • Porous Mediums

    • Specific surface BET: Micromeritics ASAP 2010 K2 ,

    • Mercury porosimetry: Micromeritics Autopore III 9410,

    • Permeability: Blaine,

    • Helium pycnometer: Micromeritics Accupyc 1330 .

  • Mechanical properties

    • Hosokawa PT-N powder tester,

    • Shearing tests: Jenike shear cell, Schultz annular cell,

    • instrumented Frogerais tabletting press,

    • Instrumented Instron press, for the measurement of mechanical properties of compacts

    • Young modulus, Poisson coefficient, shearing, compressibility

    • Powder/matrix rubbing

    • Diametral rupture test.

  • Physicochemical properties

    • Infrared spectroscopy : Perkin Elmer 2000 FT-IR,

    • UV spectroscopy : HP8452 with diode bars,

    • Gas chromatography : Hewlett-Packard 5890,

    • Liquid chromatography HPLC Spectra Physics Pump P4000 UV-VIS detector,

    • Krüss superficial tension: ,

    • Caleva torque rheometer,

    • Krüss contact angle.

    • Charge decay test unit (JCI 149)

    • Faraday cage + Keithley electrometer

Pilot installations

  • Sonication pilot Sodeva 20 kHz 2 kW 2 x 50 litres,

  • Vacuum and microwave drying test bench,

  • Diosna 2 and 6 litre mixer and granulator,

  • Fluidized bed granulator and coater,

  • Separex supercritical extraction and crystallization pilot,

  • Stand-alone compaction press,

  • RITEC 600 mm diam. sieve shaker,

  • Alpine 100AFG jet mill , 50ATP double classifier and INSITEC on-line laser granulometer ,

  • Alpine 50 ZPS impact mill,

  • Alpine 100 UPZ impact mill (hammer and grid, spindle,etc.),

  • Dangoumau mill.

Thermal metrology laboratory

  • Thermal conductivity measurement by hot probes (wire, ribbon and disk)

  • TELEPH Thermal conductivity analyzer, IRMM - LNE thermal conductivity reference materials, Hot Disk with oven at 800°C

  • Thermal diffusivity measurement by flash method. Solids, powders and fluids up to 300°C.

  • Hot wire anemometer : speed and temperature measurement in a fluid flow at high frequencies (a few thousand KHz)

  • Infrared thermography ( Agema 782SW camera + ADDELIE software)

  • Atmosphere control: EXTY250 EDWARDS turbo-molecular vacuum pump , SECASI environmental chamber (-25 to +150°C)

  • Calibration of temperature measuring chains (-20°C to +1100°C): three AOIP calibration ovens (-20 to +1100°C), AOIP PJ6301 high precision tester/calibrator, Pt100 AOIP AN5848 working standard sensor , standard thermoelectric couple type ST1200

  • Data acquisition and treatment tools: Nicolet 310 and Integra 10 digital memory oscilloscopes, data acquisition units: µMUSICS, Hewlett Packard 34970 A, AOIP SA 10 and SA 32.

  • Yokogawa MV 230 portable data recorder, 30 measurement channels (thermocouple, resistance, voltage) with Ethernet link, VISHAY 2200 conditioning amplifier.

  • Hot-wire VFM electronic thermo-anemometer: speed measurements between 0 and 3 m/s and temperature range of -20 to 80°C

  • Preparation tools: polisher, cut-off machine, etc.

Thermal analysis laboratory

  • Calorimeter IKA C5000 : determination of specific heat calorific capacity as well as the sulphur and hologen content of solid and liquid substances. Measurement range between 6000 and 32000 J. Measurements can be made in adiabatic, isoperibol and dynamic modes.

  • Pyrophrobe CDS 2000 laboratory pyrolyser. The laboratory pyrolyser gives a wide choice of pyrolysis programming parameters, including time, temperature (up to 1400 °C) and temperature speed programming (from 0.01 °C/min to 1000 °C/s). It can be used coupled with analytical instruments using FTIR or GC-MS allowing direct analysis of pyrolysates.

  • Setaflash 7 series flashpoint tester: automatic measurement of flashpoint between ambient temperature and 300°C.

  • Spex 6700 cryogrinder

  • Thermogravimetric analyzer coupled to a Setaram TGA92 thermodifferential analyzer. Maximum permitted temperature: 1600°C, purge vacuum and primary vacuum, automatic permutation of purging gases, programming of thermal cycles; "subambient" module allowing measurements in TGA-DSC to -130°C.

  • Perkin-Elmer 2000 series infrared Fourier transform spectrometer: by means of a heated transfer line that can be programmed between TGA and DTA and a gas cell placed on the optical path of a DTGS detector of the IRTF,simultaneous and continuous recording can be made of the infrared spectra of the emitted gases via a sample that is submitted to a temperature programme. A second DTGS detector allows direct acquisition of the IR spectra of solid or liquid samples.

  • Thermogravimetric analyzer coupled to a NETZSCH power compensation calorimeter (Maximum temperature of 1600°C)

  • LABMAX stabilization reactor: automatic double-envelope reactor allowing the following operations: agitation, heating ( ambient – 250°C), cooling (-70°C), gravimetric addition of solid and liquid reactives (up to 2.5 kg), pH control, vacuum and pressure control.

Physical characterization of complex mediums laboratory

  • RS150 rheometer for the study of the rheological behaviour of complex mediums: controlled deformation rheometry applied to: fluids, Newtonians, gels, pastes, muds. Wide ranges of : couples (0.0005 mNm to 150 mNm), shearing speeds (10-7 rpm to 1200rpm), pressures (1 to 50 bar), temperatures (-20°C to 500°C), measurement geometries (cone-plane, parallel plane, coaxial cylinders). Normal force sensor available.

  • SYSCAL R1 resistivity meter: apparent resistivity of site ground in terms of: depth (electrical probing), of horizontal directions (electrical profile).

  • Double-ring surface permeability meter ( PANDA type) : water permeability of site ground, up to 10-9 m/s, porous medium gas-diffusion-coefficient measurement cell.

  • HM355 rotary microtome ( MICROM type) : thin blades (0.5 to 100mm) for solid materials or those made compact by inclusion in a resin

  • Industrial-type filter press: total volume of 4 litres, 0.34 m² of membranes, 5 plates in polypropylene 250 mm X 250 mm, piston feed pump /membrane of 15 bars maximum

  • SIGMA 2K15 centrifuge: up to 15 300 revolutions/min, maximum acceleration 20 000g

  • Diffusion/convection cell : allows measurement of porosity, tortuosity and permeability of a porous sample of 10cm in diameter and 10cm in length

Chemical characterization and analysis laboratory

  • Gas chromatograph , HNU-GC 311-D, transportable on site

  • Ion liquid chromatography, DIONEX : analysis of anions and cations present in solution, based on the use of ion-exchanging resins

  • Atomic absorption (oven and flame) : Varian Spectra AA400plus+ Zeeman: quantitative determination of elements in aqueous solution. the presence of heavy metal can be quantified

  • Element analyzer NA2100 (Thermoquest) : determination of the percentage composition in elements C, H, N and S by combustion, absorption, gas chromatography of the sample. Equipped with a universal detector at the column exit of the TCD type (thermal conductivity detector) or catharometer and with a sampler allowing 32 liquid or solid samples to be analyzed. Analysis time less than 5 minutes per sample. Conforms to standards defined by: American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS), American Society of Brewery Chemist ( ASBC)

  • Total hydrocarbon analyzer, COSMA : total hydrocarbons, non-methane and methane, contained in the combustion gas. Allows tracking of transitory phenomena . Five measurement ranges: 10, 100, 1000, 10000 ppm and 100000 ppm with the aid of a dilution system.

  • Portable smoke analyzer, TESTOTHERM, Testo 350 : analysis by electrochemical cell of the composition in O2, CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 of combustion gases

  • SERVOMEX emissions analyzer, Xentra model: fine analysis of combustion gases by non-dispersive IR absorption of CO, CO2, NO, NO2 and SO2 and by paramagnetism of O2

  • Gas analysis by infrared and Fourier transform: high-resolution analysis in a gas cell of 2-meter optical path; isothermal sampling and conditioning in a range of 80 to 140°C

  • Gas detection and measurement apparatus (Multiwarn II) : detection of 5 gases (CO, H2S, C2, CH4, SO2) and quantitative measurement by detector: IR, electrochemical or catalytic explosimetric detectors

  • BET (Micromeretics Gemini III 2375): BET for measuring specific surface or volumes of pores.

  • Titrimeter, Metrohm-Titrino 736 GP: for acid-base and conductimetric dosing

  • Mineralizer

Thermal testing equipment

  • EDWARDS vacuum pump: operating pressure 3 X 10-2 at 10-8 mbar, to measure thermo-physical properties in high vacuum. Degassing tests (-10 to 150°C)

  • SECASI 30- litre lab oven. Temperature from -30 to 150°C, no humidity control

  • MPC 400-litre climate cabinet. Temperature from -40 to 180°C, humidity from 5 to 95% HR controlled between 5 and 85°C

  • SAPRATIN 600-litre climate cabinet. Temperature from -60 to 200°C, humidity of 5 to 95%; HR controlled between 5 and 85°C

  • COSTIC air conditioning unit. Capacity 25 m3, temperature from 5 to 45 °C, humidity of 5 to 90% HR

  • WTB Binder 110-litre lab oven. maximum operating temperature 300 °C

  • TATT steam generator. Mobile device supplying 20 kg/h of saturated steam (2 bars, 111 °C), equipped with a superheater of 200°C maximum temperature

  • Heraeus muffle furnace. Standard incineration tests, LOI tests, determination of ash content and mineral load are the most common applications

  • Aubry oven. Electric oven 1600°C maximum, volume of 2 litres, equipped with precision scales from 6 kg to 0.1 g. For the study of mass loss in heterogeneous samples.

  • Carver hydraulic press. Two heating plates with PID controller, maximum temperature: 260°C, maximum piston pressure: 25000 bar.

Models and pilots

  • Loop dryer: drying tests in thin layers or fixed bed, of samples of several kilograms in conditions close to industrial use, and in a controlled atmosphere (temperature, relative humidity, air speed). Drying conditions: 180°C in humid air or superheated steam. Mass loss is recorded over time by automatic weighing

  • Model of conductive drying of mud with agitation: model inserted into the loop dryer (so as to control the gas atmosphere during drying). Cylinder-shaped, it allows measurement of heat flow, of the couple applied to the agitator, and of the mass loss

  • Entrained flow reactors: make it possible to reconstruct a thermal and chemical environment comparable with that of industrial hearths or gasifiers, in the case of pulverulent solids dispersed in a reactive flow. The residence time is variable, up to a few seconds.

    1. reactor : maximum temperature of 1050°C, neutral atmosphere, oxygen from 0 to 100%

    2. reactor : maximum temperature of 1600°C, possible to operate in steam (gasification).

  • Combustion cell for porous granular mediums: allows lighting the surface of a porous bed and propagating a combustion front fed in cocurrent. Cell instrumented with thermocouples, weighing, precision measurement and gas sampling.

  • Several pieces of macro-thermogravimetry equipment: allowing a solid sample - of a few grams to several hundred grams - to be submitted to a controlled thermal and chemical environment. Monitoring of the mass over time. Capable of producing a neutral environment, with oxygen (combustion) and steam (gasification).

  • Fixed bed pyrolyser: electric oven of 1000°C maximum, volume 7 litres, loads of a few grams up to a few kilograms in pyrolysis or incineration modes

  • Rapid pyrolyser: equipped with a quartz reactor, it allows a sample of a few grams to be brought rapidly up to 800°C in an oxygen-free atmosphere. The pyrolysis lasts a few minutes and the sub-products obtained are recuperated and quantified by weighing (solid and oil) or by volume measurement (gas)

  • Cylindrical geometry experimental burner: enables methods of control and measurement techniques to be developed for flame diagnosis, specifically for pollutant concentrations (premix-type flame, combustible methane gas)

  • Electroremediation cell: plexiglass cylindrical cell used to characterize the transfers of chemical species under an imposed electric field. The porosity and the degree of saturation (the physical properties of the medium) are controlled. The potential difference and the current generated are measured, or the pH level in the soil is obtained

  • Experimental model for incineration of volatile organic compounds (recuperative thermal purifier)

  • Pilot revolving oven for continuous thermal treatment up to 1000°C of solid materials in a controlled atmosphere

  • Cone calorimeter: apparatus for carrying out combustion (open flame) of a sample whose surface (10cm.10cm) is irradiated by a controlled flow. Allows monitoring of the mass and of the thermal energy developed as well as analysis of the gaseous phase

Software platforms

  • FLUENT : calculation of laminar or turbulent fluid flows, with coupling to heat and matter transfers. Calculation of reactive flows, combustion flows, in gaseous phase or with particles. Chemistry of nitrogen oxides

  • Chemkin. group of programmes and libraries to treat and/or simulate problems of chemical kinetics in gas phase, heterogeneous chemical kinetics (gas-surface), reactive flows including complex kinetics (designed by Sandia Laboratories, commercialized by Reaction Design)

  • Lexic. Software containing calculation and database modules. Can simulate the operation of a combustion unit or waste incineration unit: mixes, complete combustion , chemical balance, pulverization, characteristic times (designed by Bertin & Cie)

  • Mt. Data (Metallurgical Thermochemistry). Software for equilibrium calculation for multi-element and multi-phase systems,whose calculation algorithm is based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. With several databases, it can be used with gases, pure substances, glass, minerals, alloys, ceramics, aqueous solutions, and combinations of these systems

  • Piloting and data acquisition software LabVIEW, complete version 6.0

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